Differences in Home Food Availability and Macronutrients Intake: Study on Obese and Non Obese Preschool Children

Yunita Indah Prasetyaningrum, Nyoman Kertia, I Made Alit Gunawan


Childhood  obesity  is  a  strong  predictor  of  adult  obesity  incidence. The  home  food environment  may  be  an  important  target  for  addressing  preschool  obesity.  Understanding  the aspects  of  the  home  food  environment  such  availability  of  home  healthy  and  unhealthy  food and  dietary  intake  is  necessary  for  developing  direct  interventions  for  weight  management. This  study  aimed  to  compare  the  food  availability  (healthy  and  unhealthy  food)  and macronutrients intake (energy and fat) between obese and non obese preschool children aged 3 to 5 years old in Kota Yogyakarta. This study  used  matched case control design. There  were 202 obese and non obese children based on the  nutritional status screening result of 53 early childhood education  (ECD)  schools  on  13  sub  districts  in  Kota  Yogyakarta.  Those  schools were  chosen by cluster  sampling  and  probability  proportional  to  size  technique.  Information about  healthy  and  unhealthy  food  availability  was  assessed  by  Home  Environment  Survey (HES)  Questionnaire.  Data  of  intake  energy  and  fat  were  obtained  through  semi  quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). Data were analyzed using statistics descriptive, paired t-test, and Wilcoxon test. Two hundred two subjects were enrolled in the study (case group was 101  obese  preschool  childrens,  control  group  was  101  non  obese  preschool  childrens). Unhealthy  food  availability  (p=0.019),  energy  intake  (p=0.000),  and  fat  intake  (p=0.000)  of obese  children  were  higher  than  non  obese  children.  There  were  no  significant  different  in healthy  food  availability  between  obese  and  non  obese  children  (p=0.873). These  results indicated  that unhealthy  food  availability  and  macronutrients  intake  (energy,  fat)  were significantly different between obese and non obese preschool children aged 3 to 5 years old in Kota Yogyakarta.

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